1163. (1-7-2011) …English political evolution [helped to clarify arbitrary actions, whether by Parliament or by the king,] that whether or not an action was arbitrary depended not on the source of the authority but on whether it was in conformity with pre-existing general principles of law. The points most frequently emphasized were that there must be no punishment without a previously existing law providing for it, that all statutes should have only prospective and not retrospective operation, and that the discretion of all magistrates should be strictly circumscribed by law. Throughout, the governing idea was that the law should be king or, as one of the polemical tracts of the period expressed it, Lex, Rex. Gradually, two crucial conceptions emerged as to how these basic ideals should be safeguarded: the idea of a written constitution and the principle of the separation of powers.
- Friedrich A. Hayek – The Constitution of Liberty, 1978
1162. (1-7-2011) Authority and power know of no discretion without the rule of law.
- Andrew T. Jackson, 1970-Present